Microsoft Windows


Windows is a series of lowest common denominatoroperating systems intended for businesses that consider only initial purchaseprice and ignore total cost of ownership, reliability, downtime, security,productivity, or other factors.
“Technically,Windows NT Server 4.0 is no match for any UNIX operating system, not even thenon-commercial BSDs [FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD] or Linux.” —Microsoft Windows NTServer 4.0 versus UNIX

WilliamNeukom, Microsoft’s senior vice president for law and corporate affairs, toldU.S. District Court Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson on December 15, 1997,“Windows 95 puts users back with the Flintstones in terms of operating systemfunction.”

Microsofthas been running a series of television commercials claiming that Windows 2000is reliable and that it can be left unattended for days at a time without humanintervention. Windows 2000 is in fact still less reliable and stable than theleast reliable version of UNIX (even the free ones), and will require a fulltime maintenance and administration staff, as well as at least a part timestaff or independent consultants for recurring repair work.

Microsofthas been running a series of television commercials claiming that Windows 2000is secure and immune from hacker and virus attacks. Windows 2000 is in factstill less secure than the least secure version of UNIX (even the free ones),and the Windows family of operating systems (including Windows 2000) is subjectto the greatest number of viruses of any operating system family (more than10,000 as many viruses as the UNIX family of operating systems).

Microsofthas been running a series of television commercials claiming that Windows 2000can easily connect to other systems and that it is easy to merge operations onseparate Windows 2000 systems. Windows 2000 is in fact unable to connect to anyother operating system unless the other operating system provides theconnectivity (UNIX, NetWare, and the Macintosh provide the ability to connectto Windows). Merging multiple Windows 2000 systems (even just two Windows 2000systems) is a difficult and time consuming process subject to errors and lossof data. Some businesses have been unable to get a new Windows 2000 system tocorrectly run their business, even after more than a year of direct Microsoftsupport.

Microsoft Windows (Continues.)

 Hardware Supported:

    * Windows 2000: Intel/Cyrix/AMD Pentium
    * Windows NT: Intel/Cyrix/AMD Pentiumw3(note: Windows NT 3.51 was ported to DEC Alpha, SGI MIPS, and IBM/MotorolaPowerPC, but is no longer supportede54; Windows NT Server Enterprise Editionwas ported to DEC Alpha, but is no longer supported)
    * Windows 98: Intel/Cyrix/AMD Pentiumw9,486DX
    * Windows 95: Intel/Cyrix/AMD Pentiumw9,80486
    * Windows 3.1: Intel 80486, 80386, 80286

MaximumNumber of Processors: 8 (Windows 2000 Advanced Server only)

Numberof bits: partial 64 for Windows 2000; 32 for Windows NTw43; 24 for Windows 3.1
“DigitalUNIX continues to dominate the 64-bit arena, leaving HP-UX and IRIX to contestthe second position, followed closely by AIX. Solaris and NT trailsignificantly behind. Support for 64-bit processes [and] for large amounts ofphysical memory are still missing from NT. NT runs on 64-bit Alpha hardware andoffers 64-bit files and file systems but has yet to address the key 64-bitrequirement to support large amounts of physical memory for enhancing databaseperformance.” —D.H. Brown Associates

Kernel:proprietary (microkernel in Windows 2000 and Windows XP)

POSIX:partially supported (Windows NT only)

Peripherals:“Many PC peripherals work with NT, many don’t. See the HCL for a list ofdevices that are certified to work.” —Kristian Elof Sørensen

File Systems Supported:

Windows 2000

    * preferred file system: NTFS (NRWF)
    * file systems read/write: SMB (RW) (seeSMB and firewalls)
    * file systems read only and can writethrough optional software: ISO 9660 (joliet)

Windows NT

    * preferred file system: NTFS (NRWF)
    * file systems read only and can writethrough optional software: ISO 9660 (joliet)

Windows 98

    * preferred file system: FAT32 (NRWF)
    * file systems can read/write: VFAT (RW),FAT (RW)
    * file systems read only and can writethrough optional software: ISO 9660 (Rw), ECD (R), CD (Rw), DVD-Video (R),DVD-ROM (R)

Windows 95

    * preferred file system: FAT32 (NRWF), VFAT(NRWF)
    * file systems can read/write: FAT (RW)
    * file systems read only and can writethrough optional software: ISO 9660 (Rw), ECD (R), CD (Rw)

Windows 3.1

    * preferred file system: FAT (NRWF)

Other Systems Emulated:

Graphics Engine:

TextCommand Shell: DOS command line

UserInterface (graphic):

GraphicCommand Shell: Explorer

Microsoft Windows (Continues)

Special topics

    * further reading: books on Windows
    * Should I switch to Windows 98?
    * What are the alternatives to Windows?

See also:

    * Windows XP
    * Windows ME (Millenium Edition)
    * Windows 2000
    * Windows NT
    * Windows 98
    * Windows 95
    * Windows 3.1

Intended purpose
Server/mainframe: Microsoft intends Windows NT or Windows2000 for server use

Desktop/workstation: Microsoft intends Windows 2000 Professionalfor workstation use and Windows 98 for desktop use
Handheld: Microsoft intends Windows CE for handheld use
Real time: not appropriate

Kind of OS: proprietary

Release Date:

Current Version:


    * Windows 2000 Advanced Server: $3,999
    * Windows 2000 Server: $999
    * Windows 2000 Professional: $319w50
    * Windows NT Server Enterprise Edition:$3,999
    * Windows NT Server 4.0 (standard): $1,129
    * Windows NT Server 4.0 (academic): $679
    * Windows 98: $209
    * Windows 95: $109

Microsoft Windows (Continues..)

Windows 3.1

screenshot of Windows 3.1

Internet Services:“bootp-DH2.x” free, patched CMU BOOTP-DD2.4.x server from Doug Hughes of DHCP, even for Win95 clients. Adds the patches from the Samba mailinglist to support PCNFS and Win95 simultaneously. For SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.x,Linux, and NetBSD servers.

Market share as of January 2002
Defacements = about 30,000 between April 2000 and February 2002
Microsoft software runs about a quarter of Web servers, but is the target of the majority of successful Web defacement attacks. —Los Angeles Times, February 13, 2002


Oneof the major features of Windows 98 is a closer merger of Microsoft’s operatingsystem and web browser. This isn’t done for any technological reasons or forthe convenience of the customer (many customers find the blurring between thegraphic command shell and web browser to be confusing), but instead serves theinterests of Microsoft by extending their operating system monopoly into theInternet.

Microsoft Windows (Continues….)

Application Programs:


“AsWindows users are being plagued by computer viruses, spam, buggy software, andWeb pop-up ads, some are questioning why the Redmond, Wash.-based softwarebehemoth has failed to integrate security and repair features that could makecomputers less prone to problems.
“‘Microsoft has added lots of bells and whistles to Windows to protect theiroperating system franchise over the years, but when it comes to Windowssecurity and reliability, they’ve done comparitively little until recently,’said Alan Paller, director of research at the SANS Institute, a Bethesda,Md.-based computer security and training organization.
“‘It’s like they are selling faster cars with more powerful engines but leavingoff the seat belts and air bags — all those critical things that make customerssafe when using their products,’ he added.

“Microsoft’scritics say the reason the company isn’t eager to add security features issimple: Doing so wouldn’t help it fend off competitors whose products couldundermine the spread of Windows.

“‘You would think there would be money to be made in Microsoft having some kindof more effective antiviral program of their own,’ said Andrew Gavil, anantitrust expert and law professor at Howard University. ‘But virus programsdon’t present any threat to their operating system monopoly.’ ” —Los AngelesTimes, “Microsoft Runs Into Bundling Dilemma”, March 27, 2004

Microsoftfalsely claimed that it would make security a company-wide priority in its muchpublicized 2002 “trustworthy computing initiaitve”. Since then, MicrosoftWindows (all versions) has become even more vulnerable to viruses and otherinternet attacks. Security is a purposely false and misleading marketing sloganat Microsoft.

“Ironically,some experts say, product bundling is partly to blame for Windows’ securitywoes.

“Lee A. Hollaar, a computer science professor at University of Utah, said thewidespread proliferation of the Melissa computer virus stemmed from the tightintegration of Microsoft’s Outlook e-mail program with its writing application,Word.

‘The Melissa virus exists only because Microsoft expanded Word documents tocontain functions that let it access the Outlook address book’, Hollaar said.

“Similarly,he explained, when the Internet Explorer Web browser was folded into theoperating system, it exposed Windows to greater security risks from the Net.’ ”—Los Angeles Times, “Microsoft Runs Into Bundling Dilemma”, March 27,2004


“NT,even in its Enterprise Edition incarnation, trails in virtually every areaexcept PC interoperability. As a comparatively new system targeting broadermarket requirements, NT simply lacks the functional depth of UNIX today.” —D.H.Brown Associates

“Youmay have noticed that a new TV ad for Microsoft’s Internet Explorer e-mailprogram uses the musical theme of the ‘Confutatis Maledictis’ from Mozart’sRequiem. ‘Where do you want to go today?’ is the cheery line on the screen.Meanwhile, the chorus sings ‘Confutatis maledictis, flammis acribus addictis,’which means, ‘The damned and accursed are convicted to flames of hell.’ ” —GaryPavek

“Windows95 is an ‘edifice of bailing wire, chewing gum and prayer.’ ” — The New YorkTimes, August 2, 1995

Microsoft Windows (Continues…..)

Switching from Windows 95 to Windows 98


Thebig question of the moment about Windows 98 is “Should I switch to Windows 98?”
Theanswer is “maybe”. The easiest answer is: if you buy a new Wintel computer, getit with Windows 98, but if your existing system is stable and working, don’tmess with it.
Windows98 offers a large number of minor improvements over Windows 95, including theaddition of several more features that were available on the Macintosh in themid and late 1980s. Windows 98 major feature is that it blurs the distinctionbetween the operating system and the web browser, furthering Microsoft’s ownmonopolistic goals of eliminiating Netscape, but by moving some importantoperating system functionality to the web browser, Windows 98 actually runsapproximately 5-20% slower than Windows 95 on the same hardware. Windows98 also includes numerous attempts at fixes of some of the worst problems inWindows 95, but more than 5,000 known bugs from Windows 95 still exist inWindows 98, because Microsoft views bug fixes as unprofitable.
Asone example, Windows 98 now supports multiple monitors. Multiple monitors is agimmick for typical home and business use, but is an essential requirement forprofessional content creation. For page layout, pre-press, illustration,animation, and other graphics work it is common to have all the software toolson one screen and the artwork in progress on a screen by itself. For video andmusic it is common to have one complete monitor for each source and destinationin use (which in a complex project could easily include several sources). Theaddition of this feature is an example of Microsoft closing the gap betweenWindows and Macintosh. The Macintosh had the ability to support multiplemonitors back in 1987. And this feature highlights the Microsoft approach toclosing the gap, because the version available in 1987 on the Macintosh isstill superior to that newly available with Windows 98. On the Macintosh, thereis no limit (other than user hardware purchases) on the number of monitors,each monitor can be of a different size (14", 17", 21",25", etc.), can be of a different resolution (72 ppi, 75 ppi, 150 ppi,etc.), and can be of a different color depth (16, 256, thousands, millions ofcolors). Additionally, the resolution and color depth of any one (or all) ofthe monitors can be changed on the fly without rebooting. And the Macintoshsupports on the fly changing of the ordering of the monitors, changing themonitor that has the menu bar, and changing which monitor windows open into.
Thedownside is that the release of Windows 98 set new records for the mosttechnical support calls in a single day. Windows 98 was released with more than10,000 known bugs and is so bug-filled that it crashed during Microsoft’sofficial televised introduction. Many individuals and businesses have found itso trouble-filled that they have given up on attempts to install it andreturned to Windows 95. These widespread reliability problems have spawnedhumor, such as the error list shown on the Windows 98 page.
BillGates, when questioned about the more than 10,000 bugs Microsoft acknowledgedexisted in Windows 98, claimed “There are no significant bugs in our releasedsoftware that any significant number of users want fixed.…The reason we come upwith new versions is not to fix bugs.…It’s the stupidest reason to buy a newversion I ever heard.”
Microsofttook the approach that it was only profitable for them to fix bugs thataffected a large number of users.
Theresult is that if your computer is a mainstream model with only simple andmainstream hardware and you only use a few select mainstream programs, Windows98 will work with no trouble at all. Windows 98 should also work fine (at leastinitially) when pre-installed on a new computer.
Themore your own work or your choice of hardware or software deviates from themainstream, the more likely that Windows 98 will present all kinds of problemsand that you will probably need to pay for hours or days of expensiveprofessional tech support to get it running.
Ifyour business is still using Windows 3.1 or MS-DOS, then the reasons thatcaused you to avoid Windows 95 apply even more strongly for avoiding Windows98.
Thereare many high quality operating systems available for existing Intel-basedhardware, including excellent commercial operating systems such as OS/2, NeXTSTEP,or Solaris, as well as excellent free operating systems such as LINUX, FreeBSD,NetBSD, and OpenBSD. For those still using MS-DOS, IBM has released an updatedand improved version called PC-DOS-2000.
Forthose considering the purchase of new computers, the Macintosh line includesboth high end graphics machines and a new consumer model, the iMac, which isactually up to two times faster than any Pentium II computer.

Microsoft Windows (Continues……)

Alternativesto Windows

“Microsoftenjoyed its great success not because it had great software but because peoplewere stuck with it. Market domination, not innovation, drove the company’ssuccess,” wrote James Wallace in the book “Overdrive: Bill Gates and the Raceto Control Cyberspace”, John Wiley & Sons, September 1997.
“Thefuture of Windows is threatened less by the superiority of its competition thanthe inferiority of Windows, which results from Microsoft’s misplacedpriorities. Microsoft’s design decisions are driven more by its attempt toprotect its desktop monopoly than by technical excellence.” —Nicholas Petreley,“The new Unix alters NT’s orbit”

1.1 MB QuickTime movie of Bill Gates explaining his criteria for selecting thebest operating system.
“Windowsmachines have advantages, too, such as more configuration options, cheaper upfront cost, availability of software, snappier response on window controls,cheaper components, more peripherals.” —Why Monopolies Are Bad, by JeffAdkins

Microsoft Windows (Continues…….)

Commentary:Quite simply, Windows guarantees more work for the M.I.S. departments — becauseit computers require far more technical support to do the same work. And whenthe M.I.S. departments make computer recommendations to management, they tendto look out for their own job security over the best interests of the business.The same reason that many retail stores also push Wintel machines — itguarantees more work for their highly profitable service departments.
Inaddition to Mac OS X (which combines the ease of use and professional contentcreation capabilities of the Macintosh with the power, reliability, and speedof the NeXT version of UNIX), BeOS, NetWare, and OS/2 Warp Server, any of themany free and commercial versions of UNIX offer a better high end operatingsystem than Windows NT. See John Kirch’s article “Microsoft Windows NT Server4.0 versus UNIX” at
Seriouscommercial UNIXs include: AIX, Digital UNIX, HP-UX, IRIX, Macintosh OS X, MacOS X Server, Rhapsody, and Solaris.
Leadingfree UNIXs include: FreeBSD, GNU Hurd, LINUX, NetBSD, and OpenBSD.
Andin the server arena, the leader (in number of installations) is still NetWare.
Studyafter study has shown that Macintoshes are less expensive to support andmaintain than Wintel machines. Wintel computers typically cost four to 10 timesas much in support costs. Even Intel’s own internal study showed that it wascosting them four times as much to support Windows machines as it did tosupport their Macintoshes (yes, Intel used Macintoshes for mission criticalwork — and since that study they have been expanding their use of Macintoshes).

Independentstudies over the years continually show that worker productivity issubstantially higher on Macintoshes than on Wintel computers. And thedifference is greatest in the creative fields (pre-press, illustration, digitalphotography, 2-D and 3-D animation, 3-D modelling and rendering, film specialeffects, broadcast video editting, CD-ROM production, multi-media, musiccomposition and performance, sound editting, and web site production), wherethe Macintosh is the most prevalent computer (even more than the high end graphicswork stations — and Macintosh OS X (formerly Rhapsody) brings the Macintosh tothe high end graphics work stations). Macintosh OS X is numerically the mostused form of See also:, John Kirch’s article“Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus UNIX”

Ethics:Bill Gates is a longtime member of the Augusta National Golf Club, the officialsite of the Masters Golf Tournament. The Augusta National Golf Club refuses toallow any women join their club and for decades refused to allow Blacks,Hispanics, and other minorities to join, only relenting in 1990 to allow a fewtoken Black members when facing criminal charges for Civil Rights violations.The only reason that Microsoft hires women and minorities is because of toughfederal Civil Rights laws. If you are a woman, Black, Hispanic, Asian, or amember of any other minority group, remember that Bill Gates and Microsoft hateyou and only take your money becuase they are forced to by law.



Macintosh OS X, 9, OS 8, OS 7, and OS 6 are desktopoperating systems made by Apple Computer that run on Motorola/IBM PowerPC andMotorola 680x0.


  • System X
  • System X Server
  • Rhapsody
  • System 9-9.2
  • System 8.0-8.6
  • System 7.0-7.6
  • System 1.0-6.0.8


Server/mainframe: small to medium scale servers (with special software)

Desktop/workstation:general desktop and content creation workstations

Handheld: notappropriate

Real time: notappropriate
“After two decades of supplying boring beigeboxes, PC makers have begun to add a bit of color and style to their lines,following the runaway success of Apple’s iMac line, a candy-colored machinedesigned for consumers that was not simply a repackaged business box.Industrial design isn’t the only selling point. A fundamental shift incomputing has occurred. For business users and consumers alike, what matters isbeing connected to the Web, not the raw processing power of the desktopcomputer. The most intriguing new technologies aren’t spreadsheets orword-processing programs, or the latest updates to Windows. Digital photography,digital music, desktop video editing, and high speed internet access are wherethe action is. A top-flight desktop computer or notebook is nice to have, butwhat makes that technology really rock is all the gear that goes with it.Computer manufacturers have altered their product lines in recognition of thattrend. Apple’s top-end consumer model, the iMac DV Special Edition, comes witha stellar sound system, high-speed FireWire ports for transferring video, andthe company’s iMovie software for editing movies. The most expensive notebookmodels now rival desktop machines for speed and versatility. Except for Apple’seye-catching iBook, however, most notebooks are designed for business users.”—Fortune Technology Guide

Macintosh (Continues)

Kind of OS:proprietary
Release Date:

Current Version: 9.2and X (10.1) NOTE:Mac OS X is not the same as traditional Macintosh, lacking the famousease of use

Cost: System X: $129; System 7.6through 9: $99; System 7.5.5 and earlier: free


  • System X: IBM/Motorola PowerPC G3/G4
  • System X Server: IBM/Motorola PowerPC G3/G4
  • System 9.2: IBM/Motorola PowerPC
  • System 9.1: IBM/Motorola PowerPC
  • System 9: IBM/Motorola PowerPC
  • System 8.6: IBM/Motorola PowerPC
  • System 8.5: IBM/Motorola PowerPC
  • System 8: IBM/Motorola PowerPC, Motorola 68040
  • System 7.6: IBM/Motorola PowerPC, Motorola 68040, 68030
  • System 7.0-7.5.5: IBM/Motorola PowerPC, Motorola 68040, 68030, 68020, 68000
  • System 1.0-6.0.8: Motorola 68040, 68030, 68020, 68000
680x0 assembly language is discussed in the assemblylanguage section.

MaximumNumber of Processors: 4
Numberof bits: 32

  • Mac Plus memory map
  • Mac Plus video memory locations
  • Mac Plus sound memory locations

Kernel:proprietary for Mac OS 9 and earlier; BSD UNIX (MACH microkernel) for Mac OS X

POSIX: notsupported by Mac OS 9 and earlier: supported by Mac OS X

Peripherals: “allcurrent Mac hardware, some graphics equipment, and some PC PCI cards” —KristianElof Sørensen

File Systems Supported: HFS+,HFS, MFS (dropped in Mac OS 9), Pro-DOS, FAT, FAT32, VFAT, SMB, ISO 9660,hybrid, CD-i, Video CD, Enhanced CD, Kodak PhotoDisk, audio CD, DVD-Video,DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-R/W, DVD-RAM

Other Systems Emulated:PowerPC only: MS-DOS (with third party Virtual PC), Windows 3.1 (with thirdparty Virtual PC), Windows 95 (with third party Virtual PC or SoftWindows95), Windows98 (with third party Virtual PC or SoftWindows98), Windows ME (with third partyVirtual PC), Windows NT (with third party Virtual PC), Windows 2000 (with thirdparty Virtual PC), Windows XP (with third party Virtual PC), Red Hat Linux(with third party Virtual PC) — see related software

Graphics Engine: QuickDrawfor Mac OS 9 and earlier; Quartz for Mac OS X

Text Command Shell: none(although AppleScript provides some text command line capabilities)

User Interface (graphic): Macintosh ToolBox for Mac OS 9 and earlier; Aqua for MacOS X

Graphic Command Shell:Finder
“On an innovative system like the Macintosh,programs don’t look quite the way they do on other systems. For example,instead of carrying out a sequence of steps in a predetermined order, yourprogram is driven primarily by user actions (such as clicking and typing) whoseorder cannot be predicted.” —Inside Macintosh, Volume I, page I-4

Macintosh (Continues.)

Macintosh System 8

Screenshot of Finder

InternetServices:“Internet Software Consortium DHCP Server, Client, and Relay agent” freelyredistributable tools: source builds on most Unix platforms, Mac, NeXTStep, andRhapsody.

Application Programs:
PageMakerwas created for the Apple Macintosh in 1985 by Aldus.
In1987 Thomas and John Knoll created the program Display, which eventually becamePhotoShop. The program ran on the Apple Macintosh.
Adobereleased the first version of Illustrator in 1987, running on the AppleMacintosh.
Mathematicawas developed on the Macintosh in 1986.
InFebruary of 1990, Adobe released the first version of the program PhotoShop(for the Apple Macintosh).


“Macshave many advantages: ease of use, integration of OS and hardware, reliability,overall lower cost of ownership over the life of the machine, and, of course,style.” —Why Monopolies Are Bad, by Jeff Adkins
“ThatMacintosh computers have so many advantages over PCs running Windows 95 shouldcome as no surprise. While Microsoft has spent years trying to imitate theinterface and duplicate the features pioneered on the Macintosh in the 1980s,Apple has taken the Macintosh to the next generation of personal computing.This next generation of personal computing, based on RISC processors andcomponent software, means that Macintosh computers bring you more advancedfeatures than PCs running Windows 95, and that those features are easier to useon Macintosh systems.
A10-year head start is only one reason why Macintosh computers have the edge onPCs running Windows 95. The other reason is that Apple is the only majorpersonal computer company to craft both the hardware and operating systemsoftware—together. That makes it easier for Macintosh users to start using newfeatures.” — Apple Computer
Afternumerous requests for specific recommendations, now includesrecommended systems for different kinds of content creation. See eachindividual web page for the recommendations for each field of content creation.

Macintosh (Continues..)

Ease of Use:

Easeof Use: The Macintosh iBook is easy enough for even a blonde model to use.

Organizationof Macintosh operating system